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The following are also examples of encyclopedic works in the later Middle Ages : "Liber de naturâ rerum" of Conrad of Megenberg (d.
1374); the "Imago Mundi" of Pierre d'Ailly (died c.
The first to attempt a work founded on the philosophy and interrelation of sciences was Francis Bacon, Lord Verulam, in his incomplete "Instauratio Magna", the second part of which was the "Novum organum" (London, 1620), and his "De dignitate et augmentis scientiarum" (1623).
His immediate successors, however, who had not mastered their materials, did not rise above the old-fashioned compilation of dry facts suited only for general instruction or as works of reference for scholars, e.g.
Consequently, it is the first duty of Catholics to adhere to what the Church proposes as the "proximate norm of faith " ( regula fidei proxima ), which, in reference to the Eucharist, is set forth in a particularly clear and detailed manner in Sessions XIII, XXI, and XXII of the Council of Trent.The general culture which every free-born Greek and Roman had to acquire, comprised the practical and theoretical sciences, grammar, music, geometry, astronomy, and gymnastics, and was termed egkyklios paideia, orbis doctrin (cycle of the sciences ), and, beginning with the Middle Ages, artes liberales . Besides general encyclopedias, the ancients also had special encyclopedias, e.g.According to their form, systematic encyclopedias are divided into two classes: Suidas, in the tenth century, compiled an encyclopedia of the latter type, which became common only in the seventeenth century after the appearance of encyclopedic dictionaries dealing with particular sciences. a lost work of Plato's pupil, Speusippus, and later Varro's "Rerum divinarum et humanarum antiquitates", which has also perished.The quintessence of these doctrinal decisions consists in this, that in the Eucharist the Body and Blood of the God-man are truly, really, and substantially present for the nourishment of our souls, by reason of the transubstantiation of the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Christ, and that in this change of substances the unbloody Sacrifice of the New Testament is also contained.These three principle truths -- Sacrifice, Sacrament, and Real Presence -- are given a more detailed consideration in the following articles: Copyright 2018 Catholic Online.